In India, there are a number of tax saving options for all taxpayers. These options allow for a wide range of exemptions and deductions that help in limiting the overall tax liability. The deductions are available from Sections 80C through to 80U and can be claimed by eligible taxpayers. These deductions are made against the quantum of tax liabilities. There are various other sections under the Income Tax Act, 1961 that can reduce your tax liabilities such as exemptions and tax credits.
Income tax is that percentage of your income that you pay to the government to fund infrastructural development, pay the salaries of those employed by the state or central governments, etc.